Layering in Money Laundering: Everything You Need To Know

Criminals profit immensely from illegal activities such as human trafficking, sales of arms and prohibited drugs, extortion, corruption and thefit. They, somehow, need to conceal the criminal nature of the money they have in order to use them as they wish. Money laundering is the process of disguising the dirty money’s illegal origin to use it for legitimate purposes. There are three stages of money laundering: placement, layering and integration. It is important for financial institutions to understand each of these money laundering stages to develop effective anti-money laundering (AML) strategies. In this article, we will look in detail at different money laundering stages, what is layering with its definition and what does layering mean in money laundering with some examples.

Stages of money laundering

Money laundering can occur through a series of complex bank transfers or financial transactions, which prevents government officials from tracking the origins of the illegal income. Using different methods and multilayered schemes, both small and large groups of terrorists can utilize their illicit funds without any detection from the law enforcement agencies and use them further to sustain criminal resources or carry out various unlawful acts/terrorist attacks.

Despite the level or nature of the crime, money launderers make use of 3 different stages of money laundering to convert their illicit proceeds from the illegal acts. The three different stages are:

1. Placement

It’s the first stage, where the illicit proceeds are introduced into the legal financial system. There are various techniques of placement – be it smurfing, electronic transfers, bulk movement, asset conversion, etc. In the case of smurfing, the criminal can do multiple transactions in different banks in a single day, less than the threshold amount ($10,000) so that the transfers go undetected by the bank or law enforcement agencies. The deposited amount may be transferred to a third party for safekeeping or to a security firm.

2. Layering

This is the second stage where the origins of the funds are concealed by moving them around in a series of complex bank transfers or financial transactions. Out of the various techniques of layering, the most common is to make electronic transfers between different jurisdictions and through offshore accounts. For instance, the criminal may wire the proceeds to a corporation in an overseas island where the money trail doesn’t end because the same corporation can be owned by a trust on another island.

3. Integration

The third and final stage is integration where the proceeds can no longer be detected by the officials and are infused back into the economy. The different methods of integration include the sale and purchase of real estate properties, expensive gifts, loans, false import/export invoices, which in turn helps to hide the source of the illegal income and reintroduces the funds into the financial system, for the use of criminals.

A pictorial representation of the three stages of money laundering is given below.

aml layering

Details of the placement stage of money laundering

Placement is the first step or the initial stage which involves placing the illegal proceeds of the crime into a legal source through the use of financial instruments or financial institutions, to help conceal its origins. The process of placement can be tedious if the money is in bulk, so the large cash amounts are broken into various small amounts and deposited at different occasions over time. They may be deposited into a single financial institution with different offices or in multiple institutions. The amount is broken from one currency into another, converted from a smaller note to a larger denomination, whichever separates the funds further from the criminals as well as the scene of the crime. The monetary amount may also be converted into different financial instruments, money orders, assets to confuse the authorities, divert suspicion or prevent detection.

Details of the layering stage of money laundering

What is layering? Layering in money laundering is defined as the process of using layers of transactions or multiple financial instruments to reinforce the legitimate look of criminal money. Once the crime proceeds have entered the financial system, and their origins are separated from the criminal source, then the funds are moved, dispersed, and disguised to lessen the suspicion or prevent detection from the law enforcement. The funds are broken into smaller transactions and transferred overseas to keep the money moving internationally and prevent the authorities from tracking the finances easily. Since the money is transferred electronically, it becomes even easier to trade the money overseas. In recent times, money launderers can use the proceeds to trade various stocks overseas in various markets, hide the transfer as a payment for goods/services, or transfer the funds to a shell corporation.

Details of the integration stage of money laundering

Integration is the last step in money laundering where the funds are integrated back into the economy/financial system for the use of the criminal at his/her will. The process of integration can happen through different means such as the purchase/resale of real estate, expensive goods, luxurious assets such as jewellery, diamonds, or any item that amounts to huge sums of money. In the integration step of money laundering, criminals or terrorist groups can easily retrieve the laundered money and fully integrate it into a legal system and use it for their purpose.

What does layering mean in money laundering?

Amongst the three different stages of money laundering, as mentioned above, the second stage – layering is where most of the action happens in order to conceal the original source of the illegal proceeds. The name ‘layering’ is used for the stage as criminals use different layers of transactions through which the funds are legitimised. The different layers denote the sequence of complex financial transactions which mix up the funds through the international financial transfers and camouflage the illegal profits. The launderer will try to move the funds between various bank accounts and through different countries by using different financial institutions so that the money trail is far too complex to be traced back to the original criminal or the original source of income. The funds can be shifted/moved up to more than ten times before they are integrated back into the financial system.

The importance of modern technology to detect layering techniques

There are various methods to launder money such as multiple deposits of small amounts for sale/purchase of antiques or expensive art pieces and transfer of illicit proceeds through a series of complex bank transfers made from offshore accounts in different countries. Despite the method used, the above-mentioned stages of money laundering can occur in any country as they can be performed separately, without any trace of the original scene of the crime.

The countries that are suffering the most due to money laundering have complex financial systems, ineffective AML/CFT compliance programs or operations which leads them to become vulnerable to various criminal activities. Current AML programs powered by legacy rule-based systems are proving to be costly to manage and ineffective as criminals constantly improve on their laundering strategies.

Modern RegTech solutions powered by artificial intelligence, machine learning and big data analytics can effectively detect layering techniques such as the use of money mules and offshore shell companies.

To know how Tookitaki helps financial institutions of all types and sizes strengthen their AML compliance programmes, request a demo with us.

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Emerged as a subset of FinTech, the Regulatory Technology (RegTech) industry has now gone more mainstream, thanks to regulators and industry practitioners. Recently, there have been many pro-RegTech c...

Hakrinbank Selects Tookitaki to Ensure Sustainable Financial Compliance Monitoring

Tookitaki announced a partnership with Hakrinbank, a leading South American bank based in Suriname, to fortify its Anti-Money Laundering (AML) detection and alerts management capabilities. To improve...

Breaking Barriers: 5 Key Insights on RegTech Adoption

HKMA in a report shared comprehensive hands-on experience and insights from respondents to better understand the factors and dependencies affecting AML/CFT Regtech adoption. The regulator collaborated...

How to Address Present-day Sanctions Screening Pain Points with AI

Sanctions risk of financial institutions is evolving in line with the global social, economic and political changes. As seen in recent news, governments across the globe are increasingly relying on sa...

Tookitaki Got Selected for FinTech Program: Asia meets Tokyo

Tookitaki has been listed among 8 Fintech startups in Asia for FinTech Program: Asia meets Tokyo, an accelerator launched by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government (TMG). We have been selected for our anti...

AML Alert Management: How AI can Augment Your Compliance Efficiency

The financial sector is facing one monster of a problem at the moment. As today’s financial institutions deal with millions of daily transactions, several thousands of routine financial transactions...

Tookitaki Recognised for Innovative Use of AI & Machine Learning

Tookitaki has won the Regtech Award for AI & Machine Learning and was highly commended in the solutions category for AML/CTF Compliance, in the 3rd Regulation Asia Awards for Excellence 2020 ...

Our UOB Success Tale: Setting a New Benchmark for AI-based AML Compliance

Tookitaki achieved a rare and historic milestone as our Anti-Money Laundering Suite (AMLS) solution went live within the premises of United Overseas Bank (UOB), one of the top 3 banks in Singapore.

Tookitaki Wins 2020 WITSA Digital Innovation Award

Tookitaki has won the 2020 Digital Innovation Award from the World Information Technology and Services Alliance (WITSA) as part of the industry body’s Global ICT Excellence Awards. Nominated by...

Money Laundering via Cryptocurrencies: All You Need to Know

Money laundering via cryptocurrency has been going on for a while now. We’ve all heard of Bitcoin, Ethereum and Dogecoin. Crypto is used by financial criminals globally but how are they getting away...

CNA 938 radio interviews Tookitaki Co-founder Jeeta Badopadhyay

Tookitaki Co-founder and COO Jeeta Bandopadhyay was named among the Singapore 100 Women in Tech (SG100WIT) List in September 2020. A collaboration between the Singapore Computer Society (SCS), IMDA, S...

Need for New Customer Risk Rating Models: Not All Customers Are Created Equal

Being estimated at between US$800 billion to US$2 trillion every year, money laundering is a serious problem for the global economy. While regulators and financial institutions are working hard to pre...

Is AML Compliance Heading for a New Normal in the Age of Digital Payments?

Increased digitization has influenced various businesses and brought in a paradigm shift in the way they create business models and approach growth opportunities. Moving away from conventional transac...

Excel to AI: How Reconciliation Tools Evolve for Better

In the world of finance, reconciliation is the process of comparing two related sets of records or two accounts at the end of a specific accounting period to find out if account balances are matching ...

Lessons Not Well Learned: 2020 AML Fines Cross 2019 Total

If research is to be believed, institutions across the globe have not done enough in the anti-money laundering (AML) compliance area. Data from consultancy Duff & Phelps revealed that AML fines in...

Exploring AML Risks in COVID-Era and the Ways to Address Them

The world continues to battle the COVID-19 pandemic and the crisis it brought in is unprecedented in the history of humankind. While there are a number of pandemic-related factors contributing to the ...

AML Amid COVID-19: Watch out for These FBI-listed Fraud Schemes

There has been a rise in the number of cybercrimes and fraud schemes across the globe ever since the proliferation of the COVID-19 pandemic. Criminals, in general, are taking advantage of people’s s...

OCC Spring Risk Perspective: 5 Takeaways on Compliance Risk

Despite its general strength, the US federal banking system is apparently susceptible to the ongoing economic weakness caused by the rampant spread of coronavirus. Earlier this month, The US Office of...

How Criminals Used COVID-19 Sales Pitch to Defraud, Launder Money

As the world is working hard to contain the spread of the COVID-19, criminals continue to take advantage of the pandemic. They are devising sophisticated methods to defraud people and launder the crim...

5 Top Myths and Facts about AI Implementation in AML Programs

We are more confirmed about the power of Artificial Intelligence (AI) to transform lives and businesses now. There are countless possible applications of AI and machine learning at present, and we see...

Typology Repository Management: Solving AML Problems Via Collective Intelligence and Continuous Learning

Despite its general strength, the US federal banking system is apparently susceptible to the ongoing economic weakness caused by the rampant spread of coronavirus. Earlier this month, The US Office of...

Whitepaper: Automated AML Pattern Detection Using Network Science

Despite its general strength, the US federal banking system is apparently susceptible to the ongoing economic weakness caused by the rampant spread of coronavirus. Earlier this month, The US Office of...

Money Laundering Amid COVID-19: What Regulators Across Globe Say

As the world continues to fight against the COVID-19 pandemic, there are reports that criminals are taking advantage of the difficult situation. They are seizing the moment to proliferate their crimin...

How will Art Cease to Be a Preferred Money Laundering Vehicle?

Money laundering via high-end art and antiquities is not new yet it is difficult to detect. Art-related money laundering amounts to about US$3 billion per year, according to this blog, quoting the Uni...

Beware! Money Mules in Demand amid COVID-19. Here’s an Effective Cure

If reports are to be believed, cybercrooks are taking advantage of the COVID-19 situation. They are targeting people who were laid off or working from home due to the pandemic to work for them as mone...

How do we weather a tornado of change?

“Great works are performed not by strength but by perseverance” – Samuel Johnson All of us are in challenging times. However, we cannot afford to be lethargic to life, work, and busi...

Roundtable Rewind: Embracing Next-gen Tech & Collaboration Key to Sustainability

As a regtech player with a vision to enable sustainable compliance programs in financial institutions, Tookitaki organized a first-of-its-kind industry roundtable in Charlotte, NC, USA to discuss oppo...

Tookitaki Appoints Industry Veteran Joe Friscia as Advisor

Tookitaki Holding Pte. Ltd. appointed industry veteran Joe Friscia, former President of NICE Actimize and BAE Systems as Advisor to the Company’s Advisory Board. Joe brings over 25 years’ extensi...

Should Modern Machines Be Ethical?

There are mounting concerns across the globe about the reliability and safety of artificial intelligence (AI) based systems and its enabling technologies such as machine learning (ML). On the air are ...

Tookitaki Raises Another US$11.7 million in Series A; Closes Round at US$19.2 million

– by Abhishek Chatterjee, Founder & CEO The Tookitaki team and I are excited to announce that we have raised an additional US$11.7 million in Series A funding, taking the total investment in...

30 Years of FATF: Notable Facts About Global AML Watchdog

The Financial Action Task Force (FATF), the intergovernmental body formed in 1989 to combating money laundering, is celebrating its 30th anniversary this year. Since its inception, the global agency p...

Tookitaki Joins Aite Financial Crime Forum as Sponsor

Technological advances have fundamentally changed the operational landscape of financial institutions. However, there are also new risks emerging in forms of sophisticated financial frauds and complex...

Will Machine Learning Replace Compliance Professionals?

The impact of modern technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning on job security has been a widely discussed topic today. Of course, AI has advanced very quickly in the last...

6 Most Prevalent Cyber-Laundering Methods in APAC

Despite being a medium to exchange information in real-time and with scale, the Internet is being misused in several ways. Among the slew of financial crimes facilitated by the Internet, money launder...

What Made Us Earn the WEF Technology Pioneer Title

Tookitaki has bagged another global acknowledgement for its outstanding works in the regulatory compliance field. Our company was selected among hundreds of candidates as one of the World Economic Fo...

We Stay as a Team, We Win as a Team and We Flourish as a Team

“Teamwork is the ability to work together toward a common vision. The ability to direct individual accomplishments toward organizational objectives. It is the fuel that allows common people to a...

ABA Regulatory Compliance Conference: 10 Sessions You Can’t Miss

The 2019 edition of the American Bankers Association (ABA) Regulatory Compliance Conference is a few more days away. Organized by the Washington, D.C.-based trade association, the conference is touted...

Tookitaki AMLS Wins SBR Technology Excellence Award 2019

Tookitaki’s Anti-Money Laundering Suite (AMLS), an end-to-end machine learning-powered transaction monitoring and names screening solution, has bagged the inaugural Singapore Business Review Tec...

Watchdogs Grow Optimistic about AI Prospects at Banks

Proper regulation of banking operations is important as any failure in the banking system would affect the wider economy. Therefore, banking is one of the most regulated industries across the globe. F...

Pitfall of Black Box AI at Banks: Explaining Your Models to Regulators

The use cases of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning in front-office, middle-office and back-office activities at banks are growing slowly but steadily. The major areas of AI play includ...

AI for Regulatory Compliance at Banks: 4 Assessments Before You Okay the Solution Proposal

Banking is one of the industries where artificial intelligence and machine learning find their applications at a rapid pace. Regulatory compliance within banking is an area which has become a costly a...

We Believe in Innovation, the Key to Survival and Growth

“Innovation distinguishes between a leader and a follower.” -Steve Jobs What comes on the top of your screen when you google the meaning of the word innovation is – the introduction of somet...

Compliance Functions in Need of a Technological Overhaul. Can Machine Learning be the Game-Changer?

McKinsey in its latest compliance benchmarking survey found that compliance function at financial institutions has reached “an inflection point” and current compliance standards are in an “incho...

Tookitaki Raises US$7.5 mn Series A from Global VCs to Transform Regulatory Compliance

Tookitaki, a regulatory technology company that aims to enable financial institutions to develop sustainable compliance programs, has raised US$7.5 million in Series A round. The round was co-led by L...

The Biggest Money Laundering Cases: From Wachovia to Danske Bank

Money laundering – the criminal activity of processing criminal proceeds to disguise their origin – is one of the gravest problems faced by the global economy, and its size is growing rapidly. It ...

A Modern Approach to Address the Reconciliation Challenges of Financial Services

Reconciliation of transactions is deemed critical for the smooth running of every financial institution. The speed and accuracy of data reconciliation can distinguish a successful institution from its...

Busting a Myth: Compliance Officer’s Job is All About Risk

Regulatory compliance has become a dreadful task for banks after regulators across the globe set stricter norms in the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis in an effort to prevent financial crimes s...

Attending ACAMS Conference in Singapore? Tookitaki Awaits You with Its Disruptive AML Solution

“In today’s era of volatility, there is no other way but to re-invent. The only sustainable advantage you can have over others is agility, that’s it.”- Jeff Bezos Singapore is hosting ACAMS’...

MAS’ Stress on Transaction Monitoring for Effective AML/CFT Compliance and Machine Learning is the Answer

Singapore is known for its top-notch AML/CFT regime created through up-to-date legislation, stringent policy and uncompromising supervision to safeguard against the abuse of the city state’s financi...

Mifid II and the Pressing Need for a New Reconciliation Approach

The financial services industry in the EU has been confused with the introduction of a revamped version of the Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (Mifid II). The ambitious regulatory reforms t...

Is Automated Reconciliation Next to Impossible in Today’s Complex Financial World?

The 2008 global financial crisis and fairly new regulatory requirements like Basel III asked financial institutions (FIs) to cut operating costs and adopt a lean operations structure, pushing FIs to r...

Modern Tech to Reshape US AML Compliance with Regulators’ Recent Handshake

George Bernard Shaw once said: “Those who cannot change their minds cannot change anything.” The past week has seen a significant change of mind from financial regulators in the US in their ardent...

Skills Development: We Have Talents and We Strive to Multiply Them

“Mastery lies on an infinite continuum, and as a result, we will never reach the end. We can, however, see to it that we are as far along that continuum as our circumstance allows.” ― Chris Mat...

It’s Our Fourth Founding Day; Taking a Pause to Cherish Our Simple but Awesome Journey

Today, as we step into our 4th year of foundation, I feel proud and honored to be leading Tookitaki that has been successful in creating added value to all its stakeholders. I was never a CEO and Took...

Tookitaki Expands into the US with New Office in Charlotte

SINGAPORE, Sept. 24, 2018: Tookitaki Holding Pte Ltd, a leading regulatory technology company, is pleased to announce the official opening of its North American office in Charlotte, NC, in the Unite...

We Tame Machines but We Unleash Human Spirits

We are well aware of the fact that our progress as an organization is in the hands of our employees. The more energy, time and attention we invest in them, the more yield we receive. So, we always mak...

5 Modern Money Laundering Methods That Criminals Use

Modern money launderers are updating their methods to beat detection and avoid getting caught every single day. Where there is new technology, cryptocurrencies and processes, there is a money laundere...

Risk Management Conference: Positive Vibes from All Corners

The Risk Management Association’s (RMA) premier annual event, the Risk Management Conference, came to an end on 6 November, and Tookitaki had the privilege to attend the event which we believe was ...

Singapore Fintech Festival: Tookitaki to showcase advanced machine learning solutions in financial services

Singapore is assured of the Fintech world’s unwavering attention next week, as the city state, is hosting this year’s Fintech Festival during 12-16 November. Touted as the world’s largest platfo...

The RMA Clarion Call to Address Risks and the Tookitaki Way

Risk officers, doing your best today is good while preparing hard for tomorrow is extraordinary. Risk management at banks has become difficult due to operational and regulatory changes. The Risk Manag...